Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) is a technique that uses low-energy electrical pulses to artificially generate muscle contractions in individuals with central nervous system damage. The application of FES in a clinical setting encompasses both patient care and rehabilitation. The aim of this paper is to present a clinical FES protocol for the rehabilitation of the upper extremities to support and train the performance of complex movements, such as wrist and finger flexion extension and palmar grip strength. The new FES protocol was tested in a cohort of five subjects with various neuromotor disorders of the upper extremities during their rehabilitation. The benefits derived from the application of the new FES protocol have been evaluated by comparing specific quantitative electromyographic parameters evaluated before and after treatment. The results show effective improvements in the performance of 4 out of 5 patients.
Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) is a technique based on the application of low-energy electrical pulses to neuromuscular structures to produce movements or sensations. FES is used in individuals who have been paralyzed by central nervous system injury but retain residual peripheral neuromuscular innervation.
FES is usually delivered by applying regular pulse waves made of monophasic or biphasic pulses. Monophasic waveforms consist of repeated identical pulses (Figure 1), usually cathodic. Biphasic waveforms (Fig. 2) are made up of repeated biphasic pulses, each consisting of a cathodic phase followed by an anodic phase. The second phase pulse aims to reverse the electrochemical processes caused by the first phase pulse, which can occur at the tissue-electrode interface and damage the skin.
The pulse waveform should be selected considering the following: the desired physiologic effect (action potential), any tissue damage, and possible electrode degradation. Biphasic waveforms are used more than monophasic in FES and are generally made up of square pulses. The short rise time of the pulses can impede the accommodation of the muscle fibers. An interface time delay must be applied between the cathodic and anode pulses to allow full propagation of the action potential along the nerve. Furthermore, limiting the amplitude of the second pulse can prevent electrode potential and its corrosion.
The application of FES in a clinical setting encompasses both patient care and rehabilitation. FES can be used in patients with damage to the central nervous system, where the propagation of stimuli to peripheral structures is disrupted due to injury or cerebral palsy. To achieve results, the stimulated muscles and nerves must be intact and completely healthy.
The main goal of FES is to continue training healthy muscles and voluntary functions by inducing physiological changes [1-3]. The main results obtained with FES are: reduction of spasticity and associated pain; improve local blood circulation; local soft tissue mobilization; bone stress; stop atrophy and increase muscle mass; improving the posture of the extremities.
The FES intervention aims to complement the functions, both sensory and motor, altered and damaged by neurological pathologies. It stimulates neuronal reorganization for the restoration of motor control, taking advantage of the plasticity of the cerebral cortex. In the case of the upper extremities, for example, the goal of FES is to restore to the patient (usually a C5 and C6 level hemiplegic or paraplegic) the ability to grasp, hold and hold objects and tools, manipulate and release them. various ways, restoring your self-confidence in daily activities.
The aim of this study is to establish a clinical FES protocol for the rehabilitation of the upper limbs to support and train the performance of complex movements, such as wrist and finger flexion extension and palmar grip strength. The benefits derived from the application of the new FES protocol have been evaluated by comparing specific quantitative electromyographic parameters evaluated before and after treatment.
Methods and materials
A. Study population
A group of five subjects with different neuromotor disorders of the upper extremities and different muscular degenerations, with no previous experience in FES training, was recruited from the Department of Neurology, ICS Maugeri Institute for Scientific Care and Research, Telese Terme (BN, Italy). . Written informed consent was obtained from each of the subjects prior to their participation in the study.
The characteristics of the subjects are summarized in Table I.
Despite their different diagnosis, all patients are characterized by spastic muscles in the affected upper limbs that are treated.
|2||25||METRO||left spastic hemiparesis|
|5||74||F||Neglect syndrome - Left spastic hemiparesis|
B. Functional Electrical Stimulator - MotionStim 8
MotionStim8 from Medel Medicine Electronics is a device designed for FES as adjunctive therapy after central nervous system disorders (Fig. 3). The system is designed to integrate exercise therapy with FES, for damaged and/or paralyzed muscles to activate trophic recovery and muscle effort and restore lost functionality.
The device has 8 channels, to which 2 electrodes each can be connected. It measures 186 x 38 x 155 millimeters, weighs 550 grams, and contains an internal battery for wireless operation, providing power supply and drain. The treatment time is adjustable from 0 to 10 hours. Stimulation is performed by a biphasic square pulse. The width of the current pulse can be set from 1 to 125 milliamps, with a frequency of 1 to 99 Hertz and a pulse duration of 10 to 500 µseconds 
MotionStim8 comes with Motionsoft, the PC software dedicated to creating functional protocols for electrical stimulation. The software development environment has intuitive interfaces that make learning how to use it very fast for the user. They can effectively develop custom FES programs through an editor to create electrostimulation protocols.
C. BTS FREEEMG 300
BTS FREEEMG 300 is a diagnostic device for surface dynamic electromyography analysis. The BTS FREEEMG 300 is completely based on wireless technologies and uses 16 miniaturized probes (Fig. 4) with active electrodes weighing less than 9 grams for signal acquisition and transmission. The probes amplify the EMG signals, digitize them, and communicate with the compact, light-receiving unit, which is a Microsoft Windows-based Pocket PC.
BTS FREEEMG 300 comes with Myolab, the intelligent and easy-to-use software developed by BTS for EMG signal acquisition, visualization and first level processing.
|Canal||Muscle||Pulse amplitude [mA]||Pulsbreedte [we]||Time delay [s]||Pulse frequency [Hz]|
|canal 1||extensor carpi ulnaris||23||500||–||20|
|Ch2||little finger extensor||25||500||0,1||20|
|Ch3||flexor carpi ulnaris||23||500||5,0||20|
|Ch4||flexor digitorum superficialis||25||500||5,0||20|
|Canal||Muscle||Pulse amplitude [mA]||Pulsbreedte [we]||Time delay [s]||Pulse frequency [Hz]|
|canal 1||extensor carpi ulnaris||22||500||–||20|
|Ch2||little finger extensor||8||500||0,1||20|
|Ch3||flexor digitorum superficialis||10||500||2,0||20|
|Ch4||flexor digitorum superficialis||8||500||2,0||20|
|Ch5||Lumbric (II in III vingers)||6||500||2,5||20|
|Ch6||Lumbrical (IV- in V-vingers)||5||500||2,7||20|
|CH7||flexor carpi ulnaris||5||500||3,0||20|
D. FES Clinical Protocol
We have developed a new clinical protocol to support and train the execution of complex upper limb movements, based on asynchronous FES. The protocol consists of 2 attempts.
- The first test is aimed at retraining the muscles of the upper extremities in flexion-extension movements of the wrist and fingers.
- The second test is aimed at retraining the muscles of the upper extremities in palmar grip movements.
Table II lists the muscles involved in the first trial. For each muscle, the following information is reported: MotionStim8 channel to which the muscle is connected, current pulse width, current pulse width, delay time from the first pulse delivered on channel 1, and stimulation rate. Pulse amplitude and width are the parameters used to adjust the number of motor units involved and the force of muscle contraction. The increase in any of these parameters produces an increase in the energy delivered to the muscle, activating a greater number of motor units, and consequently a greater muscular strength. Otherwise, the pulse rate has no effect on the force of muscle contraction. Pulse rate values less than 15 Hz can cause muscle tremors, values greater than 50 Hz cause rapid muscle fatigue, while rate values between 15 Hz and 50 Hz have little or no effect on muscle strength. Therefore, the stimulus frequency is set to a constant value (20 Hz) as low as possible to avoid premature muscle fatigue and minimize skin discomfort.
Transcutaneous electrodes have been used in the FES protocol. They are placed on the motor points of the muscles, the stimulation site that produces the strongest and most isolated contraction, at the lowest level of stimulation. The advantages of surface electrodes are their non-invasiveness, low cost, and relative technological simplicity. However, the disadvantages are not lacking: it is problematic to achieve isolated contractions or activate the muscles in depth; repeated electrode placement is difficult to replicate; finally, electrical stimulation on sensitive skin can cause painful sensations due to the activation of pain receptors in the skin. fig. 5 shows the placement of the electrodes. In this test, oval Flextrode electrodes (4 × 6 cm) were used for all muscles involved.
The duration of the first test is 22 minutes, with an initial warm-up time of 2 minutes, during which the amplitude of the current pulses is gradually increased to the value chosen for stimulation. For the next 20 minutes, 10-second stimulation phases alternate with 5-second pause phases, during which no pulses are delivered. The stimulation phase begins with activation of the extensor carpi ulnaris in channel 1, followed by the extensor digiti minimi in channel 2 after 100 ms. This type of stimulation allows extension of the fingers and wrist and remains active for 5 seconds. Subsequently, channels 3 and 4 simultaneously activate the flexor muscles, flexing the wrist and fingers during the last 5 seconds of the stimulation phase.
Table III lists the muscles involved in the second test. fig. 6 shows the placement of the electrodes. In this test, 6 oval Flextrode electrodes (4×6 cm) and 8 round Flextrode electrodes (Ø25 mm) were used. The duration of the second test is 22 minutes, with an initial warm-up time of 2 minutes. For the next 20 minutes, 11-second stimulation phases alternate with 5-second pause phases, during which no pulses are delivered. The stimulation phase begins with activation of the extensor carpi ulnaris in channel 1, followed by the extensor digiti minimi in channel 2 after 100 ms and the flexor digitorum superficialis of both channels 3 and 4 after 1.9 seconds. This type of stimulation allows the closing phase of the prehensile hand. Following this, channels 5 and 6 sequentially activate the palmar lumbrical muscles to better control movement. Finally, after 300 ms, the flexor carpi ulnaris is activated in channel 7 to maintain the grip. All involved muscles remain active for 8 seconds, after which the extensor muscles relax first, followed by the hand and flexor muscles.
Patients performed the FES protocol once a day for at least one week during their rehabilitation treatment at the Department of Neurology at the ICS Maugeri Institute.
E. EMG acquisition protocol
Electromyographic evaluations of the patients were performed before and after FES treatment to assess the outcome of rehabilitation. Electromyography (EMG) has been performed using the BTS Free EMG system on the following muscles: Extensor Carpi Ulnaris (ECU), Extensor Digiti Minimi (ECM), Flexor Carpi Ulnaris (FCU), Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (FDS). Before applying the probes, the patient's skin is shaved and cleaned with alcohol. Bipolar electrodes on each muscle are placed with a 20 mm electrode gap and orientation parallel to the muscle fibers. fig. 7 shows the location of the EMG probes.
The EMG measurement session consists of 5 consecutive phases of 1 minute each, with a total duration of 5 minutes. At each stage, the patient is asked to perform a different task:
- Maximum Wrist Extension (MWE)
- Maximale polsflexie (MWF)
- Maximum Finger Extension (MFE)
Each subject performed at least 2 sessions. The EMG signals are further processed with Matlab. Signals are extracted and then filtered using a Butterworth bandpass filter (cutoff frequencies 10 to 500 Hz). The Root Mean Square (RMS) of the signal was evaluated for each muscle and for each recording task. In order to be able to compare the RMS values of the different phases and muscles, they are normalized to the RMS value assumed for the same muscle from the same subject during the resting phase. In this way, the RMS values are expressed as a percentage of the corresponding rest phase.
Result and discussion
EMG measurements were performed to assess the outcome of the rehabilitation caused by the FES protocol. In Table IV, the results are expressed in terms of RMS range, that is, the range between the minimum and maximum nominal values. Results are reported for each patient and for each active task phase of the EMG acquisition protocol. RMS ranges are expressed as a percentage of the corresponding RMS value evaluated during the rest phase. For each task, the results are divided into RMS sets of the agonist and antagonist muscles. A cohort of 3 healthy subjects performed the same EMG protocol to assessnormative rangesfor the measures evaluated. Normative ranges are reported in the last row of the table. Significant differences between the ranges before and after RMS are shown in bold.
The first task involves extension of the wrist. Significant differences were found between the pre and post measurement in all patients, both for agonist and antagonist muscles. RMS ranges for agonistic muscles increase after rehabilitation, indicating an increase in muscle tone. Antagonist muscles have tighter RMS ranges after rehabilitation, which means better control of muscle activation.
The second task, relating to wrist extension, showed similar results. The RMS ranges in the agonistic muscles obtain higher values and closer to the normative values in the subsequent measurements. Better control of the antagonist muscles is evidenced by the tighter ranges adopted after rehabilitation.
No significant differences were made in the extension of the fingers.
Finally, 4 out of 5 patients improved their finger flexion performance with FES rehabilitation. Due to the severe disease state and minimally conscious state characteristic of Patient 4, no significant flexion or extension of the fingers was observed.
According to the results presented, it can be said that the new proposed asynchronous FES protocol achieved effective improvements in 4 out of 5 patients. It should be noted that the numerical limitation of the study population makes this work a preliminary study and an exploratory study. research with biotechnological value. To demonstrate significant clinical results, it would be desirable to expand the study to as large a cohort of patients as possible.
CONCLUSION and PERSPECTIVE
In conclusion, two important aspects emerged from this work. The method carried out demonstrated the efficacy and usefulness of a Functional Electrostimulation protocol in the therapeutic treatment of certain neuromotor pathologies.
On the other hand, although simple devices for FES exist commercially, it is difficult to establish their specific implementation in rehabilitation protocols in clinical practice. The main obstacle lies in the gap between bioengineering skills and the needs of physicians, physiotherapists and neuropathophysiology technicians. Overcoming this obstacle is possible by seeking a high degree of integration and synergy between the professional figures involved; The engineer must have the ability to establish a beneficial relationship of mediation and mutual cooperation with doctors, physiotherapists and therapists, promoting and enabling the configuration of technology in the clinical protocols of the rehabilitation program.
- H. Ring, h. Weingarden and R. Nathan, "The Hand Master - Benefits of Intensive Functional Electrical Stimulation in Stroke", 8th World Proc Irma Congress, Kyoto, Japan,
- H. Weingarden, r. Nathan, R. Kizony, and H. Levy, "Functional electrical stimulation of the upper extremities for walking with a walker in hemiplegia: a case report," am j of phys med rehab, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 1-5, 1997.
- H. Weingarden, g. Vela, R. Heruti, J. Shemesh, a. Oh one. Give, ged. Katz, R. Nathan and one. Smith, "Functional Hybrid System of Upper Extremity Electrical Stimulation Orthoses: Effects on Spasticity in Chronic Stable Hemiplegia," am j phys med rehabili, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 276-281, 1998.
- Simon, b. (2017). Wireless PC connection of the motionstim8 muscle stimulator and implementation of control software for coupling to the myo-bracelet thalmic (dissertation, University of Heilbronn).
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a subtype of NMES that involves applying electrical stimuli to paralyzed nerves or muscles to induce muscular contraction in order to complete a functional task . Conventional FES has been used in neurorehabilitation for tasks such as rowing or cycling [70, 71].What is the use of functional electrical stimulation for rehabilitation? ›
FES allows muscles that have been paralyzed or partially paralyzed by stroke to move again. When using FES as a treatment after a stroke, an electrical current is applied to the skin over a nerve, or over the bulk of a muscle, which causes the muscle to contract. If the peripheral nerves are damaged, it may not work.What is an example of functional electrical stimulation? ›
An example of this is an FES device for foot drop. The device will sense when the patient is lifting their foot from the ground and stimulate the common peroneal nerve to activate the muscles which generate lift (dorsiflexion) at the ankle.What is functional electrical stimulation for stroke upper extremity? ›
Stroke can lead to significant impairment of upper limb function which affects performance of activities of daily living (ADL). Functional electrical stimulation (FES) involves electrical stimulation of motor neurons such that muscle groups contract and create or augment a moment about a joint.What is the difference between electrical stimulation and functional electrical stimulation? ›
Regarding the difference between FES and NMES. The parameters for FES will have a shorter pulse frequency if you look at pulse frequency being 20 to 60. In traditional NMES, there is a longer pulse frequency and you will most likely have lower amplitude in FES as compared to traditional NMES.What is the goal of functional electrical stimulation? ›
Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)
The goal is to restore function by applying electrical current to muscles and nerves in patients paralyzed by SCI. External stimulation is commonly used to prevent atrophy and to maintain muscle strength in paralyzed patients.
The idea is that applying an electrical current helps strengthen muscles, block pain signals, and improve blood circulation.What are 3 uses of electrical stimulation? ›
Summary. Electrical stimulation therapy can be a useful tool to augment your rehab program. Different types of e-stim can be used to help your muscles contract properly after injury or surgery, reduce pain, improve circulation, or administer certain medications through the skin.What injuries is electrical stimulation used for? ›
Typically, we find that e-stim can help patients who have lower back pain, arthritis, or other spinal issues that cause nerve pain in your hips, legs, or back. E-stim can treat muscular pain, nerve pain, or both, so it's important to understand the real source of the pain signals your body is sending to your brain.What are the 4 types of electric stimulation? ›
- Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS)
- Russian electrical stimulation.
- Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)
- Functional electrical stimulation (FES)
- Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
- and many more…
FES is sometimes also referred to as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES).What is functional electrical stimulation also known as? ›
An FES system that facilitates a specific movement is often referred to as a neuroprosthesis or motor neuroprosthesis.What is electrical stimulation of upper extremity muscles? ›
Functional electrical stimulation (FES), also called functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS), is a technique used to replace or help a muscle contraction during a functional activity by applying electrical current to the nerves that control muscles.What is functional electrical stimulation for muscle weakness? ›
Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) activates paralysed and weak muscles by stimulating a specific group of muscles. FES can be delivered as arm or leg cycling, or during functional movement patterns.What are the different types of electrical stimulation for stroke recovery? ›
- EMS (Electrical Muscle Stimulation)
- NMES (Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation)
- FES (Functional Electrical Stimulation)
- TENS (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation)
- SES (Sensory Electrical Stimulation)
You'll get a tingly, “pins and needles” feeling at the site. Depending on the type of e-stim, you may feel a muscle twitch or contract repeatedly. Each e-stim therapy session may last 5 to 15 minutes, depending on the condition being treated.What are 2 benefits of using electrical stimulation? ›
- May improve joint pain and swelling.
- Prevents and reveres muscle atrophy (loss of muscle mass/tissue)
- Enhances rehabilitation of muscles.
- Increases range of motion for tense muscles or tendons.
- Reduces stress and discomfort.
- Improves blood flow and circulation.
The incorrect placement of electrodes can actually increase spasticity. Stimulating at an intensity that is too high can result in muscle aches. These side effects will subside within a few days of stopping the treatments. Rarely, there have been reports of skin irritation from the electrodes.What is functional electrical stimulation for nerve damage? ›
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a treatment that involves the use of painless, mild electrical stimulation to a muscle or muscles to help them move. The treatment is administered by relatively small, battery-powered devices. FES devices work by sending low-level electrical impulses to damaged nerves.What is the mechanism of action of functional electrical stimulation? ›
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is the technique of applying safe levels of electric current to activate the damaged or disabled neuromuscular system in a coordinated manner in order to achieve the lost function. Neuro-prosthesis is a device that uses electrical stimulation to activate the nervous system.
Because electrical charges are responsible for brain activity, electrical stimulation can in turn be used to change the brain's functioning. Brain stimulation has been used to treat mood disorders and stress, and it can even help people to solve problems, memorize information, and pay better attention.What are the side effects of electrical stimulation for back pain? ›
Are there any risks of side effects? For most people, TENS is a safe treatment with no side effects. Some people may be allergic to the pads and their skin may become red and irritated. Speak to your GP, physiotherapist or pharmacist if you have concerns.How often should you use a muscle stimulator? ›
Before you consider how many you need, it is important to understand that the maximum amount of times you can train using Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) technology is 1-2 times per week. This is to allow time for your muscles to repair and recoup before your next session. Yes, you NEED that time to recover!Why do chiropractors use electrical stimulation? ›
Chiropractors use electrodes to aim the electrical pulses at particular areas of the nervous system to block the transmission of pain signals being sent toward the spine and brain. The stimulation also works to boost the body's production of endorphins which are natural pain relievers.What is the main use for electrical stimulation of muscles as a physical therapy tool? ›
Doctors use electrical muscle stimulation to help treat pain and heal injured, weak, or diseased muscles. The electrical currents may help improve blood flow and stimulate the muscle fibers or nerves. Physicians may recommend TENS or EMS depending on the injury or condition.Can electrical stimulation build muscle? ›
Many athletes seeking a competitive advantage use EMS to build muscle faster. Since EMS can contract a muscle far longer than what an athlete could do themselves, it can grow more muscle and enhance training sessions.What are the types of electric current used in physical therapy? ›
Electric currents used in therapy are conventionally divided into three basic groups: galvanic current, pulse direct current and alternating current.What is electrical stimulation for muscle activation? ›
Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) has long been used as a complementary training method, applied either locally[1,2] or to the whole body. It activates muscles artificially through various electrical current forms, which are delivered through electrodes on the target muscles.How often can you use electrical stimulation? ›
You can begin with one 15-minute therapy session. Repeat for another 15 minutes if needed. Use up to three times per day at a maximum. During each therapy, rate your pain before and after the session, 1 (low) to 10 (high) in order to gauge the true reduction of pain.Is FES the same as TENS? ›
TENS is used to stimulate sensory nerves and is most often used to reduce pain and muscle stiffness/tone. This type of stimulation is often used in orthopedic clinics. FES stimulates the motor nerves with the goal of achieving a muscle contraction.
Spasticity is muscle overactivity that occurs when communication between your brain and spinal cord is disrupted by a spinal cord or other injury or an illness. One possible treatment is functional electrical stimulation, which delivers a shock to your affected muscle, activating nerves and making the muscle move.Who uses functional electrical stimulation? ›
Overview. People who have had a spinal cord injury may benefit from functional electrical stimulation (FES) as part of their rehabilitation. This therapy uses computer technology to send low-level electrical impulses to specific muscles in your legs, arms, hands or other areas.Where is functional electrical stimulation placement? ›
The electrodes touch or stimulate the targeted muscles or nerves. Electrodes can be: Attached to the surface of the skin with sticky pads. Placed directly under the skin (percutaneous placement) during an office visit.What is electrical stimulation therapy or electrical stimulation rehabilitation after a stroke? ›
Electrical stimulation works by placing non-invasive electrodes on your skin. Once activated, these electrodes send mild electrical impulses to your muscles, causing them to contract. Electrical stimulation for stroke patients can help to activate the damaged portions of the brain by providing intense stimulation.Does electrical muscle stimulation help nerve damage? ›
The science of delivering electrical stimulation (ES) intraoperatively has been around since the 1980s, when medical pioneers used it in animal models and then later in humans. ES was found to help nerves regrow more effectively and efficiently at the neuronal level.Which nerve stimulation helps restore arm function after stroke? ›
Electrical impulses from the device stimulate neural circuits in the spinal cord, priming them to receive movement signals from the brain. This engages muscles that have been weakened by stroke, allowing patients to voluntarily lift their arm, open and close their fist, and grasp household objects.What are 3 therapies most people need after having a stroke? ›
What is stroke rehabilitation? Rehab can include working with speech, physical, and occupational therapists. Speech therapy helps people who have problems producing or understanding speech. Physical therapy uses exercises to help you relearn movement and coordination skills you may have lost because of the stroke.What is the difference between neurological and functional recovery following stroke? ›
Neurological recovery refers to the intrinsic recovery of impairment. Functional recovery refers to regaining independence in activities of daily living. Neurological recovery can be divided into early local processes and later reorganization.What is functional electrical stimulation in medical terms? ›
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a treatment that involves the use of painless, mild electrical stimulation to a muscle or muscles to help them move. The treatment is administered by relatively small, battery-powered devices. FES devices work by sending low-level electrical impulses to damaged nerves.What is the difference between neurological and functional recovery? ›
Neurological recovery refers to the intrinsic recovery of impairment. Functional recovery refers to regaining independence in activities of daily living. Neurological recovery can be divided into early local processes and later reorganization.
What is deep brain stimulation? Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure that uses implanted electrodes and electrical stimulation to treat movement disorders associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor, dystonia and other neurological conditions.What are the advantages of functional electrical stimulation? ›
- Prevent your toes from catching when walking.
- Improve your walking pattern, quality and speed.
- Reduce the effort needed to walk.
- Improve your balance.
- Reduce your chances of tripping / falling.
- Allow you to walk further.
- Improve muscle strength.
Many people find that with specialist treatment their symptoms resolve completely. Others find that their symptoms gradually improve but they continue to have a tendency to develop physical symptoms when they are under particular stress.What is an example of functional rehabilitation? ›
Static and dynamic body stability,neuromuscular control andproprioception are elements that are often not included in standard rehabilitation assessments but are integral to functional rehabilitation. Examples include the patient's ability to perform single leg squats, box jumps, and planks.
What is functional neurologic disorder? Functional neurologic disorder (FND), also known as conversion disorder and functional neurologic symptom disorder, refers to a group of common neurological movement disorders caused by an abnormality in how the brain functions.What type of therapy is electrical stimulation? ›
Electrical stimulation is a type of physical therapy modality or treatment used to accomplish various tasks in physical therapy (PT). The idea is that applying an electrical current helps strengthen muscles, block pain signals, and improve blood circulation.Is electrical stimulation good for the brain? ›
Stimulating specific regions of the brain with low levels of electricity might improve focus or memory, mood, or even dementia, according to tDCS advocates. improve symptoms of ADHD or Alzheimer's disease.Does stimulation help nerve damage? ›
Clinical studies have shown that electrical stimulation enhances axon growth during nerve repair and accelerates sensorimotor recovery. According to different effects and parameters, electrical stimulation can be divided into neuromuscular, transcutaneous, and functional electrical stimulation.What are the risks of functional electrical stimulation? ›
Most of the risks of functional electrical stimulation (FES) pertain to the wires and electrodes that are positioned under the skin or in deep tissue and not FES systems that are external to the body. The risks include: Irritation or infection at the site of electrode placement (internal and external systems).What is a drawback of electrical stimulation? ›
Stimulating at an intensity that is too high can result in muscle aches. These side effects will subside within a few days of stopping the treatments. Rarely, there have been reports of skin irritation from the electrodes.